The Monastery of Elijah: A History in Paint and Stone is the title of a monograph currently in progress on the Basilica of S. Elia, a twelfth-century church located in the village of Castel S. Elia (VT), Italy. Built and decorated ca. 1125 to serve the monks of the monasterium s. Heliae, the church is a striking example of Romanesque architecture in the vicinity of Rome. Not only does the building survive, so too does much of its medieval paintings, sculpture, marble furnishings, inlaid pavement, inscriptions, and even landscape. Analysis of this material offers insight into the ways in which the church’s monastic patrons deployed architecture and the visual arts to generate, preserve, and promote specific concepts of local history and communal identity.